Grade 9 Art History
(REVISED: Sept 2017-Jan 2018)
GRADE 9 ART HISTORY SLIDE LIST – Part I
A CHRONOLOGICAL APPROACH: LOOKING AT ART MOVEMENTS IN PROGRESSION
A CHRONOLOGICAL APPROACH: LOOKING AT ART MOVEMENTS IN PROGRESSION
Paintings & Objects:
1. The Palette of Narmer (c. 3150-3125 BC) Siltstone.
2. Fowling Scene from the tomb of Nebamun (c.1450 BC) Wall painting.
3. Burial Mask of King Tut (1325 BC) Gold with inlaid semiprecious stones & coloured glass.
4. Ranofer (c.2500 B.C.) Stone.
5. Mycerinus and His Queen (2470 BC) Slate.
6. Queen Nefertiti (1360 BC) Painted Limestone.
7. The Great Pyramids (2530-2470 BC) & The Great Sphinx (2500 BC) Limestone. Giza, Egypt.
EGYPTIAN ART NOTES:
About Ancient Egypt...
• Maintained a stable society for several thousand years
• unique language and culture
• Polytheistic society
• Pharaohs = gods on Earth
• Believed in a physical afterlife
• Had literature, medicine, & higher mathematics
About Egyptian Art...
- Most examples are funerary art
- Mummies (preserved bodies) were kept in multiple layers of sarcophagi
- Statues created as alternate dwelling for dead person’s the “ka” (spirit)
- Tombs filled with objects, furniture and food for the dead person to enjoy in the afterlife
- Art had strict rules for creation and was not overly realistic in the way humans were shown
Characteristics of Egyptian Painting & Relief Carving...
FRONTALITY - frontal view of the eye and shoulders with profile of the head, arms and legs.
DESCRIPTIVE PERSPECTIVE - most powerful / important is figure is represented like a giant (sizes are not proportional but symbolic).
STYLIZATION - Human anatomy was an approximation, not realistic.
Characteristics of Egyptian Sculpture...
- Arms are close to the torso, pose is always frontal and bisymmetrical
- They are rigid / stiff, human anatomy was an approximation
- Ideal bodies / not sculpted accurately
- Made of hard stones (e.g. granite, porphyry, diorite) for permanence
Characteristics of Egyptian Architecture...
- Purpose of buildings: as tombs / to protect the Ka (soul)
- Pyramid of Cheops /Khufu:
• Largest stone structure in world
• 13 acres site
• 2,300,000 limestone blocks (2.5 tons each)
• 480 ft tall
• Took about 23 years for 1000’s of workers to construct
8. Terracotta Krater Geometric terracotta krater. (c.750-735 BC)
9. Exekias. Achilles Slaying Penthesilea. Black figure Amphora. (530 BC)
10. Kouros (Statue of a Youth) (600 BC) Marble & Peplos Kore (c.530 BC) Marble
11. Polykleitos, Doryphorus (Spear-bearer). (450-440 BC) Marble.
12. Nike of Samothrace (c.190 BC) Marble
13. Alexandros of Antioch. Venus de Milo (c.100 BC) Marble
14. Laocoön and His Sons (c. 200-100 BC) Marble.
15. Iktinos & Kallikrates. The Parthenon (448-432 BC) The Acropolis, Athens.
16. Temple of Athena Nike (c.420 BC) The Acropolis, Athens.
GREEK ART NOTES:
About Ancient Greece...
• A democratic society (somewhat: women and slaves could not vote)
• Polytheistic – believed in a variety of gods & goddesses
• Golden Age (480-430 BC) – Greek society suddenly advanced in art, architecture, poetry, drama, philosophy, government, law, logic, history, and math.
• Believed in man’s dignity and worth
About Greek Art...
- A focus on the human figure – seen in painting, sculpture, and even architecture (proportion)
- Philosophy stressed harmony, order, & balance
- Subject Matter: Greek mythology and contemporary subjects such as sport, warfare, parties, etc.
Characteristics of Greek Pottery...
- Practical purposes: carrying and storing water, wine, oil, grain, etc.
- Many examples spread throughout the Mediterranean because of trade.
- Greek pottery was sometimes used for marking graves or given as awards for sporting events also.
- Different decorative styles developed over time: e.g. geometric style, oriental style, black-figure, red-figure
Characteristics of Greek Sculpture...
• Subject Matter: Gods, Goddesses and athletes
• Made for temples and graves
• Males were shown nude, females were usually clothed
• They strove for ideal proportions and perfection of the human body
• They invented Contrapposto – shifting weight to look natural
• Sculptures became more realistic and aimed for ideal proportions.
Characteristics of Greek Architecture...
- Purpose of temples: to glorify the Gods
- The walls were made from cut stone.
- They used Post and Lintel Construction
- The term Pediment refers to the triangular shape at the top of the building (used to add decorative motifs)
- There are three Greek orders of columns capitals: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
Wall Paintings & Mosaics:
17. Battle of Issus (c.100 BC) Marble Mosaic.
18. City of Pompeii (79 AD) Pompeii, Italy
19. Catacombs of Saint Callixtus (San Callisto) (2nd-3rd Century AD) Rome, Italy.
20. Augustus of Prima Porta (c.125 AD) Marble.
21. Portrait of an unknown Roman (mid-1st Century AD) Marble.
22. Constantine the Great (330 AD) Marble.
23. Pont du Gard (c. 20 BC) Roman Aqueduct. Nimes, France.
24. The Colosseum (72-80 AD) Rome, Italy
25. The Pantheon (118-125 AD) Rome, Italy.
ROMAN ART NOTES:
About Ancient Rome...
• Admired and copied the Greeks’ society and artistic style shared this throughout the Roman Empire
• Roman Republic (democracy) then developed into the Roman Empire (spreading as far as England, Egypt, Spain, Russia)
• Spread the following through the Empire: civilized law, roads, bridges, sewers & aqueducts
• Philosophy: Efficiency, organization, practicality
• Contributed in the field of Law & engineering
Characteristics of Roman Paintings & Mosaics...
• Painted realistic images with depth (perspective & trompe l’oeil)
• Subject Matter: landscapes / gardens, religious rituals, everyday objects and people
• Most remaining wall paintings are found at Pompeii and Herculaneum – shows an abundance of red
• Mosaic – made up of small cut coloured stones (tessarae), arranged to make complex images
• Can be found on floors, walls, or ceilings
• The smaller the pieces = better artist / more expensive to produce
Characteristics of Roman Sculpture...
• Copied a lot of Greek sculpture (lost originals), especially images of gods and goddesses
• Portraits of Senators / ordinary people are often highly realistic
• Portraits of Emperors are idealized or exaggerated as a form of propaganda
• Figures are often dressed (some nudes)
Characteristics of Roman Architecture...
• Purpose of buildings: temples, civic buildings (baths , forums) to honour the Empire.
• Their contributions included:
- the invention of concrete
- the arch, a vault and a barrel vault.
- the dome
• They used the Greek style of columns, but most frequently the Corinthian capital.